History, current status and future of stem cell therapy

2017-06-06 17:23

The clinical application of stem cell medical technology began in 1968, when the world’s first bone marrow transplant was completed. Its active ingredient is hematopoietic stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has since been used extensively to treat certain hematological malignancies and tumors, and the source of hematopoietic stem cells has gradually changed from bone marrow to peripheral blood, and then to umbilical cord blood. In 1988, Professor Gluckman of France took the lead in successfully adopting cord blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to treat an anemia child, marking the beginning of the era of umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. About 60,000 bone marrow transplantations are performed each year in the world. The number of patients who have completed bone marrow transplantation using autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells is nearly 35,000 and 25,000, respectively. As of 2014, nearly 40,000 cord blood transplants were performed worldwide. In addition to bone marrow transplantation and umbilical cord blood transplantation, stem cell products from other sources are gradually entering the clinical application stage, and the types of diseases faced are greatly increased, and will exceed the number of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the future.

Marketed Stem Cell Therapy Products

Most of the stem cell therapeutic products that are already on the market and under development are using mesenchymal stem cells (hereinafter referred to as MSC). For example, Prochymal approved in Canada and New Zealand for the treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease in children, Hearticellgram-AMI approved for the treatment of acute MI in South Korea, Cupistem for the treatment of anal fistula, and for the treatment Cartistem of degenerative arthritis and articular cartilage injury. In addition, at least three of the tissue-engineered bone bioproducts use MSC's mobile implant bases - Nuvosive's Osteocel, Orthofix's Trinity, and Skye Orthbiologies' LiquidGen. Stem cell transplants are the fastest growing segment of the bone graft market and are expected to have a global market value of US$600 million in 2015.

New Stem Cell Therapy Products Under Development

Some mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapeutic products have entered the late phase of clinical trials and are expected to be accepted into clinical applications in the near future.